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Anti-prohibition news from over the world

Collected live from our allies' blogs.
Note: All opinions expressed below are those of the authors only, not necessarily TICAP's.

Frank and the Orbital Siphon

Published on 2022-09-20 10:13:32.
Website: Frank Davis


In sorting through Frank’s papers I came across the October 2006 edition of the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. On page 368 was a paper titled ‘THE ORBITAL SIPHON: A NEW SPACE ELEVATOR CONCEPT’ which was authored by Frank … Continue reading →

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Snus is safe and e-cigarettes are miracle products

Published on 2022-09-20 08:37:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


There were a couple of studies published last week that are worth bookmarking. They don't tell us anything we don't already know, but they contradict what a lot of people think they know.

The first looks at smokeless tobacco and oral cancer risk. It finds that the kind of smokeless tobacco widely used in Asia, such as gutkha, is strongly associated with oral cancer (partly because these products contain many other ingredients in addition to tobacco), but there is one notable exception. 

Except snus, all SLT [smokeless tobacco] products sold in different WHO regions are strongly associated with OC [oral cancer] incidence.

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Axe the tax, Liz

Published on 2022-09-16 14:49:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


More from me on reports that Liz Truss may be ditching Boris Johnson's obesity strategy and repealing the sugar tax...

In public health circles, it is considered terribly gauche to expect policies to work. You might think, for example, that a trailblazing intervention designed to reduce obesity would be considered a failure if obesity rates rise to record highs after it has been implemented. Not so with the sugar tax. Obesity among both children and adults has gone up since it was introduced in 2018, but the health lobby does not consider it to be a failure. Contrary to the evidence of your eyes, they say, it has actually been a success. The only failure is the failure of the government to do lots of other things in addition.

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Dare to dream

Published on 2022-09-14 14:58:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


Has the Tory party finally found a leader with sound convictions and the bottle to get things done? The early signs are encouraging. Today's Guardian front page laments that... 

Liz Truss could scrap anti-obesity strategy in drive to cut red tape

Exclusive: Health officials ‘aghast’ as review launched of measures to deter people from eating junk food

... The review is so radical in scope that it may even look at whether the sugar tax, which began in 2018 and has helped make soft drinks much less unhealthy, should go too. Health experts have hailed the levy as a key initiative in the fight against dangerous obesity.


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Low risk gambling guidelines

Published on 2022-09-13 07:59:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


Canada is swiftly becoming nearly as much of a lost cause as Australia, liberty-wise. That the Canadian 'public health' racket is out of control was shown recently when the Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction recommended that the drinking guidelines be reduced to two drinks per week. Yes, that's per week, not per day. The Canadian government also plans to put health warnings on each individual cigarette from next year.
I recently discovered that Canada also has 'lower risk gambling guidelines'. I haven't heard of this concept anywhere else in the world. There are ways of diagnosing problem gambling, but this is the first time I've come across general advice to the population to help people avoid becoming a problem gambler.
The government boasts that its guidelines are based on "the most current scientific evidence available". I'd be interested to see this evidence because it seems to me that the guidelines have been rectally sourced. They are:  1: Gamble no more than 1% of household income 2: Gamble no more than 4 days per month 3: Avoid regularly gambling at more than 2 types of games Moreover, if you have "problems from alcohol, cannabis or other drug use", you should gamble even less than this and preferably not at all. 
I suppose problem gamblers break all three of these rules on a regular basis, but that doesn't mean that you or I will become a problem gambler if we break any of them.  Since the 'harm' associated with being a problem gambler comes from losing more money than you afford, sticking to the first of these tips (Gamble no more than 1% of household income) is guaranteed to prevent all 'gambling-related harm'. They are therefore not 'low-risk' gambling guidelines. They are zero-risk gambling guidelines.
 

How useful and evidence-based are they? The academics who created them identified several traits of problem gamblers, such as a tendency to engage in various different forms of gambling, and are trying to steer people away from them. But isn't this the tail wagging the dog? Problem gamblers play different games because they gamble at every opportunity. They are problem gamblers, after all. Can we really reverse cause and effect and assume that if someone sticks to one or two forms of gambling, they won't become a problem gambler?  Can we assume that a problem gambler will pay any attention to these guidelines at all? They are about as much use as telling people to drink no more than two drinks a week. As with the drinking guidelines, the only people who will abide by them are people who are never going to run into trouble in the first place.

One of the covert purposes of constantly reducing the drinking guidelines is to inflate the number of 'hazardous drinkers’ in society, thereby creating demand for action from politicians. But hazardous drinking isn’t a proper clinical concept. If your doctor thinks you’re drinking too much you might get given a questionnaire to assess ‘harmful drinking’ - which is a clinical concept - but the questions have nothing to do with 14 units a week in the UK (or whatever arbitrary figure has been picked elsewhere). 

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'Problematic information' about nicotine and COVID-19

Published on 2022-09-12 11:15:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


A study titled 'The influence of pro-vaping "gatewatchers" on the dissemination of COVID-19 misinformation on Twitter' has been published in something called the Journal of Medical Internet Research. It's paywalled but the pre-print version is here. It is yet another whinge about people retweeting things that 'public health' academics don't agree with. 

The authors lament the lack of gatekeepers on Twitter to control what scientific information people have access to. They then invent the meaningless term 'gatewatchers' to describe anyone who has built up a following and puts out interesting tweets. After the usual dredging of Twitter, they conclude that quite a few of the people who mentioned the evidence that smokers are less likely to get COVID-19 in 2020 had a 'pro-vaping bias'.


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Modern temperance

Published on 2022-09-07 11:07:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


Professor David Nutt is a curious fellow. He is quite sound on vaping and drugs, but horribly puritanical about alcohol. The problem lies in his blinkered view of psychoactive substances which focuses solely on ‘harm’ and ignores both the benefits of taking the substance and the societal context in which consumption takes place.

For Nutt, ‘harm’ generally means the damage to the health of the user and those around him, but he will sometimes include barely measurable harms such as ‘loss of relationships’, ‘family adversities’ and ‘community’ to bulk up the figures. By this dubious method, he once produced a league table of substances in which ketamine, GHB and benzodiazapine were portrayed as better than alcohol. In fact, everything in the league table was better than alcohol, even tobacco.

From this, Nutt concluded that ‘the present drug classification systems have little relation to the evidence of harm’. The implication was that either alcohol should be banned or everything should be legal.

Now, it might be true in some sense that ketamine is a safer drug than alcohol, but it would hardly be an appropriate substitute for alcohol at a wedding, for instance. It isn’t even much of a substitute for alcohol in a pub.

 

2 blokes in Abergavenny went for a cheeky line of coke and turned out to be ket. Another angle..these lads are in a hole ???? pic.twitter.com/XyEHxB8LsG

— Gabriel Shoe™ (@Gabriel_Shoe) July 7, 2022  

And whilst Nutt insists that methamphetamine does not cause much harm to other people, I would argue that if everyone who drank alcohol switched to crystal meth tomorrow, society would soon fail to function.

While I agree with Nutt that MDMA and cannabis should be legal, I have long had concerns over his research, much of which seems to be blatantly agenda-driven and sloppy. His articles about alcohol, in particular, are riddled with errors. He is happy to repeat any old canard from the temperance lobby so long as it paints booze in a bad light. I have written about this again and again and again.

In January 2020, he published a book called Drink?: The New Science of Alcohol and Your Health. I haven’t read it and have no urge to do so, but I could see from his summary of it in the Daily Mail that it was packed full of half-truths, lies and exaggerations.

I had forgotten all about it until I read this post by Fergus McCullough who is very impressed by the book. The parts he quotes irritated me because they are largely untrue, but it irritates me even more to think that somebody believed them. This is not Fergus’s fault, as such. People should able to believe a book written by a professor. Nevertheless, what Nutt says is frequently wrong.

Take the health benefits of moderate drinking, for example, which seem to rile the anti-alcohol lobby more than anything. Fergus writes: 

What I didn’t realise before, though, is how poorly evidenced the beneficial effects of alcohol are. Looking at the available studies, Nutt writes that the positive effect on cardiovascular health has never been definitely proven (i.e. beyond mere association), and even if there is a small positive effect, the optimal level of consumption would be around one unit a day. The benefits don’t outweigh all the other risks.

 Never definitely proven ‘beyond mere association’? OK, so we don’t trust observational epidemiology. But two paragraphs earlier, Fergus quotes the following from Nutt’s book: 

Alcohol use is one of the top five causes of disease and disability in almost all countries in Europe. In the UK, alcohol is now the leading cause of death in men between the ages of 16 and 54 years, accounting for over 20 per cent of the total. More than three quarters of liver cirrhosis deaths, 7 per cent of cancer deaths and 25 per cent of injury deaths in adults under 65 years of age in Europe in 2004 were estimated to be due to alcohol.

 How do we know that alcohol causes these diseases and injuries? From ‘mere association’ in epidemiological studies - the same kind of epidemiological studies that have consistently shown lower rates of cardiovascular disease and lower overall mortality among moderate drinkers for decades. Later in his post, Fergus says (presumably quoting Nutt): 

Treating the results of excessive alcohol consumption is a huge burden for the NHS. In England alone, around 350,000 hospital admissions per year are mainly attributable to alcohol.1

 Nobody is counting these people in hospitals. The 350,000 is an estimate based on attributable fractions which simply assume that a certain proportion of hospital admissions for a given ailment is caused by alcohol. So, for example, if two people die from drowning, one of them is assumed to be an alcohol-related death. All of this is ultimately derived from the ‘mere associations’ of observational epidemiology. (Last year, the Office for Health Improvement and Disparities (neé Public Health England) changed the methodology and the number of ‘alcohol-related’ hospital admissions dropped massively.)

There is no ‘definite proof’ that alcohol causes cancer. There is no ‘definite proof’ that smoking causes cancer, for that matter. It is practically imposssible (and unethical) to conduct randomised controlled trials to prove it either way. What we have instead is a wealth of observational evidence backed up with a plausible biological mechanism and no other reasonable explanation for the statistical associations. And that is what we have to show that moderate drinking is good for the heart and helps people live longer.

In fact, the evidence of health benefits from moderate drinking is stronger than the evidence for alcohol causing any form of cancer. There are more studies from more countries over a longer period of time and the hypothesis has been tested more rigorously precisely because people like Nutt don’t want to believe it.

I am on two mailing lists for alcohol research and barely a week goes by without a new study showing health benefits from moderate alcohol consumption. Occasionally I will tweet them, but generally I ignore them. For anyone familiar with the field, it is a non-story. The evidence is so overwhelming that it takes a huge amount of motivated reasoning to ignore it. The response from the likes of Nutt is exactly the same as the tobacco industry’s response to the evidence on smoking and lung cancer in the 1950s. They dismissed it as a mere statistical association and demanded an impossible burden of proof.

I have written plenty about the alcohol J-Curve elsewhere so won’t go over it again, but to give you an idea of the double standard at work, here are the results from a meta-analysis of light alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, which Nutt believes to be conclusive.

Only a handful of the studies produced statistically significant results and the combined relative risk was a tiny 1.09 (1.06-1.12).

And here are the results from a meta-analysis of moderate drinking and coronary heart disease which Nutt thinks ‘has never been definitely proven’.

Here, most of the studies are statistically significant and the effect is larger. A relative risk is 0.75 (0.68 to 0.81) means the moderate drinkers are 25% less likely to die from a very common disease. If moderate drinking was a drug, they’d be prescribing it.

Incidentally, the authors of the first study found a statistically significant reduction in lung cancer risk among the light drinkers, a result that I suspect Nutt would not take seriously (and I wouldn’t blame him).

As for the claim that ‘The benefits don’t outweigh all the other risks’, here is what overall mortality looks like. The teetotallers have a 20% increased risk of premature death compared to moderate drinkers. Note also how these graphs refute the tired old cope from the ‘sceptics’ that teetotallers only die younger because many of them are sickly former alcoholics. These graphs separate never-drinkers, ex-drinkers and current drinkers.

We then move on to economics. Nutt writes: 


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Drinking is not smoking

Published on 2022-09-05 09:20:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


From the Daily Express... 

Cancer warning: Popular drink equivalent to smoking five to 10 cigarettes UK study finds 

CANCER is a terrifying prospect but one that can be mitigated against to some extent. For the first time, a UK study has found knocking back a popular drink is the equivalent of five to 10 cigarettes.

 The popular drink is wine. I'm not sure why they don't just say that in the headline. 

Drinking a bottle of wine per week may be like smoking five to 10 cigarettes in the same time period, in terms of cancer risk, according to a study from the United Kingdom.

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A swift half with Angela Knight

Published on 2022-09-05 08:46:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


In the latest episode of The Swift Half I spoke to the former CEO of Energy UK, Angela Knight, who explained what is going on with energy prices and what can be done to bring them down. Angela is knowledgeable and non-partisan. Several people have said that they found the interview to be very informative. I hope you will too.

 

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Last Orders with Leo Kearse

Published on 2022-08-30 11:01:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


 New Last Orders episode out with comedian Leo Kearse. Check it out.


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We don't need no stinking evidence!

Published on 2022-08-25 09:15:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


I've written about the 'public health' racket's takeover of gambling regulation for Spiked and a truly risible study published earlier this month. 

Having accepted that there is virtually no evidence on which to base population-wide policy, the authors breezily state that it is ‘reasonable to assume that some of the measures used for other public-health concerns could be adapted alongside gambling-specific measures’. Is that a slippery slope you see before you? Why, yes it is.

To find out which policies borrowed from totally different fields might fit the bill, the authors asked 77 experts ‘from our professional networks’. Only 10 of them bothered to reply. They had ‘expertise in alcohol, tobacco, drugs, diet and obesity, and communicable and non-communicable diseases’. But apparently not in gambling.

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A swift half with Alex Deane

Published on 2022-08-23 09:45:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


New episode of The Swift Half has dropped, this week with conservative commentator Alex Deance. Check it out.


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George Monbiot hoist by his own petard

Published on 2022-08-22 14:05:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


There are some crazy conspiracy theories associated with Bill Gates these days. First he wanted to kill everybody with vaccines, then he wanted to buy up all the world's farmland and now he wants everybody to stop eating meat or something.  A Guardian article by the left-wing journalist George Monbiot has got a surprising amount of attention from the denizens of Clown World. In it, Monbiot argues that organic lamb and beef are the most environmentally destructive farm products. The article is full of holes and can be destroyed with facts and logic as this thread does, but the clowns went straight for the ad hominem argument instead. 

Bill Gates apparently donated $13 million to the Atlantic and the Guardian

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Zombie businesses

Published on 2022-08-22 08:52:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


 I've got an article in the Times today about the link between low interest rates and low productivity. 

Thanks to inflation hitting double figures last month, average earnings have dropped below the level of 2008 in real terms. A decade of stagnation will soon become a 15-year slump. None of the usual excuses — Brexit, “austerity”, Russia, Covid-19 — adequately explains the economy doing so badly. When economic historians look back on this era, it is the rock-bottom interest rates that will jump off the page. What if they are the cause of our problems, rather than the solution?

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Australian black market for tobacco goes off the scale

Published on 2022-08-19 11:22:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


9.5 million cigarettes seized in Freemantle, Western Australia

 

A pack of cigarettes costs the equivalent of twenty pounds in Australia these days. It is the most expensive place to smoke in the world. How do smokers afford it? 

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Frank: July 2012

Published on 2022-08-16 05:41:21.
Website: Frank Davis


Friday, July 27 was a good day….

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Monkeypox and medical ethics

Published on 2022-08-12 11:40:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


You are not been alone if you’ve noticed that the public health establishment’s reaction to the monkeypox outbreak has been rather different from its reaction to COVID-19. In the latest episode of Last Orders, Tom Slater drew a parallel with the summer of 2020 when the public health establishment’s attitude towards large gatherings was firmly negative if it involved a loved one’s funeral or a child attending school, but strongly positive if it involved protesting for a fashionable cause.

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Minimum pricing isn't working

Published on 2022-08-03 09:53:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


Promises, promises

Minimum pricing of alcohol in Scotland is not going well. Self-styled public health advocates are baffled.

Now in its fifth year and facing a subset clause next year, the Scottish government’s own evaluation has made grim reading for those who claimed that setting a floor price of 50p on a unit of alcohol would be a game-changer in Scotland’s relationship with The Drink.  
In October 2021, the evaluation of the impact of minimum pricing on crime found

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The fantasy world of public health modellers

Published on 2022-08-02 12:01:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


Remember the study claiming that the Transport for London ban on 'junk food' advertising had let to London households consuming 1,000 fewer calories per week? It was execrable rubbish and now a study based on it is claiming that nearly 100,000 cases of obesity have been prevented by the ban.

It's all pure fantasy, as I say at Cap-X... 

Regardless of what you think of this particular policy, it is worrying that public health policy-making has become so divorced from observable reality. Policies are proposed on the basis of modelling, evaluated on the basis of modelling, and the modelling is carried out by advocates of the policy. At no point are facts allowed to intrude. A rise in chocolate consumption becomes a fall in chocolate consumption. A rise in obesity becomes a fall in obesity. Activist-academics have created a world of pure imagination and are exploiting the broken peer-review process to drag us all into their land of make believe.

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Nicotine use, past and present

Published on 2022-08-01 16:06:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


Earlier today I mentioned a study that is a go-to resource for e-cigarette evidence. I now present you with the definitive short-read about the future of nicotine written by Clive Bates. 

So, here is the interesting question. What if nicotine use is no longer all that harmful? What if the real problem was always the inhalation of toxic smoke while trying to consume nicotine for its benefits? As early as 1991, the leading medical journal The Lancet reflected on how the nicotine landscape might look after the year 2000: “There is no compelling objection to the recreational and even addictive use of nicotine provided it is not shown to be physically, psychologically or socially harmful to the user or to others.”

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E-cigarette facts and evidence

Published on 2022-08-01 10:44:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


Colin Mendelsohn and colleagues have written a very nice response to a barking mad report commissioned by the Australian government about e-cigarettes. As you might expect from the Aussies, the report was a hatchet job on vaping. It made such claims as...

There is conclusive evidence that the use of e-cigarettes can cause respiratory disease 
(Based on the EVALI outbreak which had nothing to do with e-cigarettes.)

And...

There is strong evidence that never smokers who use e-cigarettes are on average around three times as likely than those who do not use e-cigarettes to initiate cigarette smoking.
(A claim that ignores the large decline in smoking rates among young people since vaping went mainstream and ignores common liability.) Mendelsohn et al. conclude that:
 Contrary to the conclusions of the Banks review, the evidence suggests that vaping nicotine is an effective smoking cessation aid; that vaping is substantially less harmful than smoking tobacco; that vaping is diverting young people away from smoking; and that vaping by smokers is likely to have a major net public health benefit if widely available to adult Australian smokers.
I doubt that this will come as a surprise to readers of this blog. The main reason I recommend the article is not for its conclusion but because it is a succinct summary of the evidence.  It is difficult to keep up with e-cigarette research. More than 50 studies are published every week and a lot of it is junk science from the USA. Mendelsohn et al. is a handy, up-to-date reference point for anyone who wants to find the key studies on the main issues of risk, smoking cessation, the 'gateway' effect, the EVALI nonsense, etc.
It's one to keep in your back pocket if faced with spurious arguments against vaping. It's paywalled but I daresay the authors will give you access if you ask them on ResearchGate

UPDATE

Within minutes of posted this, I saw on Twitter that the lead author of the Aussie report has been given an award. Because of course she did.

Congratulations Professor Emily Banks AM FAHMS, recipient of the prestigious @ama_media Gold Medal for her outstanding service to medicine, including ground-breaking research establishing evidence of the significant harms of e-cigarettes.@ANUPopHealthhttps://t.co/gY0uWnU8Wo

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A reasonable question and a sensible answer about the Covid vaccines

Published on 2022-07-30 19:44:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


This graph has been doing the rounds recently…  It is based on an Office for National Statistics (ONS) dataset which the vaccine hesitant have been getting excited about. Toby Young, editor of the Vaccine Sceptic Daily Sceptic mentioned it a few days ago… 

The latest ONS data show that 93% of Covid deaths in April and May were of vaccinated people, in a population that is 93% vaccinated, suggesting zero protection. The same is true in each age group. https://t.co/6uNQmMsLB9

— Toby Young (@toadmeister) July 27, 2022  

And the rapper Zuby has been tweeting images like this

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Trussonomics and Sunakonomics

Published on 2022-07-29 09:04:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


I was on the Sky News podcast this week with Miatta Fahnbulleh from the New Economics Foundation discussing the economic policies of Liz Truss and Rishi Sunak. You can listen here.


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How to deal with the cost of living

Published on 2022-07-27 12:54:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


 


The IEA has a new paper out today titled Cutting Through which looks at six areas where the government should act to address the cost of living and/or reduce inflation.

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Immortal time bias strikes again

Published on 2022-07-26 09:11:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


 

I don’t write much about e-cigarette junk science because there is too much of it and it is just too depressing. But I just came across this effort, which I missed earlier in the year, because I saw someone tweet about it. It’s worth looking at as a cautionary tale about statistics.

It’s the first study I’ve come across that purports to show that vaping gives you cancer. The headline claim is: 

The e-cigarette users have lower prevalence of cancer compared to traditional smoking (2.3% vs. 16.8%; P < 0.0001), but they were diagnosed with cancer at a younger age.

Even the suggestion that vapers have a (much) lower rate of cancer than smokers seemed doubtful after they did a regression analysis

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A swift half with Clive Bates

Published on 2022-07-22 09:35:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


The new episode of the Swift Half is a lively discussion about tobacco harm reduction with Clive Bates (formerly of ASH, Greenpeace, etc.). Be sure to watch...


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Nanny state round up

Published on 2022-07-21 11:23:00.
Website: Velvet Glove, Iron Fist


You may fondly recall the activists at Stirling University producing a study - i.e. an online survey - pushing for cigarette-style labelling of alcohol in April.

The same state-funded puritans were back yesterday with another piece of alleged research in the same vein, this time based on focus groups of fifty people, as reported by The Times... 

Alcohol packaging must be regulated or come with health warnings similar to cigarettes, say campaigners after a study illustrated how beer and spirits were designed to appeal to young people.

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Frank from June 2019

Published on 2022-06-29 10:09:12.
Website: Frank Davis


The Pink Floyd comment raises a smile. Some years earlier Frank had been drinking in a pub in Bristol and had been lost in conversation with a guy at the bar. As time wore on, he remembered he was going … Continue reading →

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Debunked: CO2 & "climate change"

Published on 2022-06-06 22:52:00.
Website: Clearing The Air


 Debunked:


"global warming" is NOT tied to C02 levels....IE. cannot be blamed on human activity....therefore taxing humans (or worse yet changing human behavior (IE. banning use of fossil fuels), for CO2; which is at an all time low; is a scam that serves no purpose other than enriching politicians

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Cigarette packets

Published on 2022-05-30 14:58:01.
Website: Frank Davis


During the clearing of Frank’s flat I came across a number of cigarette packets that he had designed and made himself. One still with its Marlboro contents. The photograph tells part of the tale.  He had been outraged by tobacco … Continue reading →

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New Study Finds that Switching from Smoking to Vaping Reduces Heart Disease Risk by 34%

Published on 2022-05-11 23:19:00.
Website: The Rest of the Story: Tobacco and Alcohol News Analysis and Commentary


A new study published just days ago in the journal Circulation reported that adults who exclusively use electronic cigarettes experience a 34% reduction in their risk of heart disease. 

(See: Berlowitz JB, et al. E-cigarette use and risk of cardiovascular disease: A longitudinal analysis of the PATH study (2013-2019). Circulation 2022; DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.057369.)

The study used a longitudinal design, following approximately 32,000 adults over a six-year period from 2013 to 2019. E-cigarette use and tobacco cigarette use were assessed periodically, as was self-reported heart disease, including a heart attack, heart failure, or stroke. The study examined the risk of incident heart disease for smokers compared to exclusive e-cigarette users, dual users, and nonsmokers, while controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and family history of heart disease.

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Frank, April 2014

Published on 2022-04-28 10:07:12.
Website: Frank Davis


April 11, 2014 finds Frank reflecting on his Idle Theory: I’ve been angry today that the 40-year struggle to get the Idle Theory into the world is over. Who knows whether I succeeded or not? The next day: I was … Continue reading →

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